Cardiac enlargement (Cardiomyopathy)

Cardiac
enlargement is one of the heart diseases caused due to an increase in
the size of the heart. Increase can be in terms of thickness of the
heart muscle, which is known as Hypertrophy, or it can be in
terms of the size of the inside cavity of a chamber of the heart,
which in medical terminology known as Dilation. Hypertrophy
occurs in only one1 chamber of heart whereas Dilation occurs in 1, 2
and 3one, two, or three chambers. Both the diseases are matter of
serious concern.

Cardiac
hypertrophy:

Hypertrophy
occurs due to increased stress on the heart. It generally takes place
in ventricles. The most common causes of heart thickening is
increased blood pressure in either the lungs or the body. The extra
work of pumping blood against the increased pressure causes the
ventricle to thicken.

Hypertrophy
are can be divided intoof two types:

1)
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH)

2)
Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH)

1)
Left ventricular hypertrophy

High
blood pressure, or hypertension, is considered to be the most
frequent cause of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). LVH can because
due to Stenosis of the aortic valve. Stenosis does not allow the
heart valve to open fully, thus preventing the pumping of the blood
to lungs. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,
a disease of the
myocardium in which a portion of the myocardium is thickened without
any obvious cause, are is some one of the most
common causes of LVH. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a genetic
disease. These fibers need to work harder to pump blood and become
thickened over time. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy occurs in 1 in 500
people.

2)
Right ventricular hypertrophy

Harmful
lung Diseases such as
emphysema and cystic fibrosis are
some of the common causes of Right ventricular hypertrophy. These
diseases are so fatal that it can even destroy the blood vessels
present inside lung which can result in increased pressure in the
remaining vessels. Chronic bronchitis and sleep apnea that occurs due
to decrease in the level of oxygen also lead to Right ventricular
hypertrophy (RVH). Stenosis of the pulmonic heart valve, primary
pulmonary hypertension and repeated blood clots to the lungs (chronic
pulmonary embolism) are the other causes of RVH that needs to be
taken care of.

Cardiac
dilation:

Cardiac
dilation is also known as
dilated (congestive) cardiomyopathy.
In cardiac dilation, the heart becomes
weak and doesn’t pump blood normally becuasebecause the left
ventricle, is enlarged and stiff. It can lead to congestive heart
failure. Cardiac dilation is caused due to the
direct damage to the heart muscle. These damages can be due to prior
heart attack, heart muscle inflammation or can be due to long-term
alcohol abuse. Heart muscle inflammation, which is also known as
myocarditis, is sometimes of unknown cause and is often associated
with a viral infection or interaction between the immune system and
the heart muscle. Immune reaction can be observed with inflammatory
diseases like lupus. It can also be noticed toward the end of
pregnancy.

Dilation
can also be caused due to cancer chemotherapy, hemochromatosis (iron
accumulation), use of cocaine, and or exposure to metals like cobalt,
lead, and mercury. Other sources that can lead to
cardiac
dilation are thyroid disease, diabetes, severe coronary artery
disease, and or viral infections of the heart.

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